Figure 2: Angiography demonstrates a stenotic lesion in the mid right coronary artery, undilatable by standard high-pressure balloon angioplasty (inset, arrowheads). (B) Optical coherence tomography (OCT) cross-sectional (top) and longitudinal (bottom) images acquired before IVL and coregistered to the OCT lens (arrow in A) demonstrate severe near-circumferential calcification (double-headed arrow) in the area of the stenosis. (C) Angiography demonstrates improvement in the area of stenosis after IVL (inset; note the cavitation bubbles generated by IVL [black arrows]). (D) OCT cross-sectional (top) and longitudinal (bottom) images acquired post-IVL and coregistered to the OCT lens (white arrow in C) demonstrate multiple calcium fractures and large acute luminal gain. (E) Angiography demonstrates complete stent expansion with the semicompliant stent balloon (inset) without the need for high-pressure noncompliant balloon inflation. (F) OCT cross-sectional (top) and longitudinal (bottom) images acquired post-stenting and coregistered to the OCT lens (arrow in E) demonstrate further fracture displacement (arrow), with additional increase in the acute area gain (5.17 mm2), resulting in full stent expansion and minimal malapposition.
A macrophage immune cell, with a dead cell (pink) that has been eaten, and a mitochondrion (green) between the dead cell and the nucleus. The study’s findings indicate that what the macrophage eats is taken up by the mitochondrion, which in turn communicates with the nucleus to activate the macrophage to promote tissue repair. Image courtesy of Northwestern Medicine.